Labour Market Assessment

Labour Market Assessment for TVET Skills Methodology

INTRODUCTION

The Better Education for Africa’s Rise (BEAR) project was launched in Tanzania in 2017 with an overarching objective of giving young people a better chance of accessing decent employment through improvements in the TVET system. The launching constitutes Phase II of the project after successful implementation of its Phase One in five countries including Botswana, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Malawi, Namibia and Zambia. The project is funded by the Republic of Korea, and is being implemented jointly between the Government of the United Republic of Tanzania and UNESCO. It includes a broad range of planned activities corresponding to three identified result areas: increasing the relevance of TVET to the needs of the economy, enhancing the quality of TVET delivered to trainees, and improving the perception of TVET among young people and society.

Among other objectives, BEAR II seeks to increase the relevance of TVET to the needs of the communities and the labour market. This report provides an understanding of TVET skills need and gaps in the sectors of agro business and creative industry with a view of linking trainers with community and the industry needs. The report is organized in five sections to include the introduction, TVET labour market assessment; assessment of skills need and skills gap in the two selected sectors of agro business and creative industry; an assessment of TVET training institutions in the two sectors and a selection of industries/business firms for potential linkage between trainers and the industry; and an introductory description of a data bank created for TVET.

Context

Vocational Education refers to organized training programs which are directly related to the preparation of individuals for paid or unpaid employment. In Tanzania, provision of vocational education and training is regulated by the Vocational Education Training Authority. The Authority is a Government Agency established by the Vocational Education and Training (VET) Act No. 1 of 1994 Cap 82 with revised edition of 2006. VETA is entrusted with controlling, coordinating, supervising, and continuous improvement of provision of quality vocational education and training. VETA is mandated to conduct tracer studies on the employment outcomes of the vocational training graduates.

 

In Zanzibar the Vocational Training Authority (VTA) was established under the Vocational Training Act No.8 of 2006 in order to supervise vocational training through the determination of standards of training, the assessment, evaluation and registration of vocational training centers (VTC). Under the Act, VTA is mandated to coordinate vocational training by conducting assessments, evaluations and approval of the capacity and skills of trainers and trainees, conducting research into the employment markets, preparing and formulating circular, providing vocational training, enhancing the capacity and skills of VT trainers and managers, coordinating all certificates issued by registered vocational training centers, and ensuring availability of adequate funds for operation of the vocational training system.

Objectives of the Report

The objective of the assignment is to develop a comprehensive mapping report and data bank regarding data sources, skills assessment tools and available results in the areas of agro-business and creative industries for Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar.

DEFINITION

Creative industry

Creative industry is a range of economic activities which are concerned with generation or exploitation of knowledge and information. They are also invariably referred to as the cultural industries[1]  or the creative economy[2]

Creative industry comprises advertising, architecture, art, crafts, design, fashion, film, music, performing arts, publishing, R&D, software, toys and games, TV and radio, and video games. Invariably, there have been other several definitions which include more economic activities.

However, there are many classifications of creative and cultural industries in the literature. For example, UNCTAD’s definition states that “Creative and cultural economy is circles of creation, production and distribution of goods and services that use creativity and intellectual capital as primary inputs. They comprise of knowledge-based activities that produce tangible goods and intangible intellectual or artistic services with creative content and economic value and market objectives.

Figure 1 shows that creativity and intellectual capital are the drivers of the creative and cultural industry. When creativity is used to generate livelihoods or economy through non-cultural activities, it is referred to as creative industry; and when it is through cultural-related activities it is referred to as cultural industry. The two are in principle the creative industry because creativity and intellectual capital are used to make livelihoods. It is not the entire spectrum of cultural activities which constitute the creative culture; likewise, it is not all the aspects of creativity and intellectual property are commercialized.

 

Agro industry

The agro-industry is a branch of industry which, in turn, is divided into two activities, on the one hand, food, that is in charge of the transformation of products from agriculture, Fishery, stockbreeding, forest wealth, among others, into manufactured products for consumption; and on the other hand, non-food deals with the transformation of raw materials using their natural resources for the production of different products. The industry also includes wholesale and retail business. The scope of it is really broad, including for example the design of equipment for industries, as well as the management of the industries.

Agribusiness technology is a fairly recent outgrowth of the application of science, technology, and business management techniques to the fields of agriculture. The business side of agribusiness has profited from the shift by farmers from consuming the goods that they grew to selling those foods. This shift has created the need for transportation, processing, storage, selling and marketing[3]. TVET skills in agro industry is a summary of groups of instructional programs that prepare individuals to apply scientific knowledge and methods, and technical skills in support of agribusiness and agricultural activities concerned with the production and propagation of crops and animals, supplies and services, mechanics, product processing, marketing, and horticulture.

 

Labour Market

Labour market also known as job market refers to the supply and demand for labour in which employees and job seekers constitute the supply; and employers become the demand side. Therefore, the conditions under which skills are traded have two sides, demand and supply. Demand in this context refers to the number of employees with specific skills which employers seek to recruit for employment per a given period of time – commonly one year. Supply, on the other side, is the total number of people seeking employment and have more-or-less the specific skills sought by the employers. When the skills sought by employers match the skills available in the labour market, there will be skills match in the market; if they do not, there will be skills mismatch – where there will be unmatched supply and demand (Figure 3). Labour supply or demand is not measured by skills as such; it is the number of people with specific skills sought in the labour market. This goes further to include the number of working hours from each category of employees or skills.

Understanding of TVET skills

A skill is the ability to carry out a task with determined results often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skill is the ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills).

Broadly, six main types of skills are identified in the literature. These are hard skills, labour skills, life skills, people skills, social skills and soft skills. Hard skills, also called technical skills, are any skills relating to a specific task or situation. It involves both understanding and proficiency in such specific activity that involves methods, processes, procedures, or techniques. These skills are tested and may entail some professional, technical, or academic qualification.

Labor skills is the ability to work productively in occupations like electrician, mason, carpenter, baker, brewer, cooper, printer and other occupations that are economically productive.

Life skills is the ability and capacity acquired through deliberate, systematic, and sustained effort to smoothly and adaptively carryout complex activities or job functions involving ideas (cognitive skills), things (technical skills), and/or people (interpersonal skills) .

People skills are described as understanding ourselves and moderating our responses, talking effectively and empathizing accurately, and building relationships of trust, respect and productive interactions.

Social skill is any skill facilitating interaction and communication with others. On the other hand, Soft skills are a combination of interpersonal people skills, social skills, communication skills, character traits, attitudes, career attributes and emotional intelligence quotient. Soft skills are desirable qualities for certain forms of employment that do not depend on acquired knowledge: they include common sense, the ability to deal with people, and a positive flexible attitude.

Skills gaps versus Training needs Assessment

Skills gap is the difference in the set of skills between individuals’ current level of competency, skill or knowledge in one or more areas and the actual required competency standard established for their positions within a business entity. Skills gaps include skills which may be completely missing in the labour market – example development of a new technology that requires a complete new skills for running and managing it. The gaps will constitute training needs as may be undertaken by TVET institutions.

APPROACH METHODOLOGIES

Approach

General Approach

General Approach

In principle, analysis of the entire TVET skills labour market would be too broad, given the limitations of this study, as it involves many sectors and sub-sectors. As such, the study identified and selected two sectors to focus on, based on the recommendations from the scooping mission of 2017. The sectors are Agro industry and the Creative industry.

One of the tasks of carrying out labour market analysis is to identify the skills demanded in the labour market versus the supply of them. In the context of the objective of this report, this implies that the analysis maps out the number of students graduating from vocational training institutions, per year, in each of the two selected trades - agro business and the creative industry, on one side; and the number of job-seekers in the two trades who managed to get employment per year. This is to find out whether the supply side of TVET skills in the labour market is able to meet the expectations of the demand side both quantitatively and qualitatively. To accomplish this analysis, there would be a need of designing a methodology which included:

  • Data collection tools and methods
  • Selection of the interview respondents
  • A framework of analysis of the data cum information, and
  • Presentation of the results.

 

The template would be web-based to allow wider usage and sharing for future similar studies. The approach will complement the tracer study commonly carried out by training institutions.

Assessment of labour market for TVET Skills will involve compilation of data and information on skills need, supply, job posts, skills gaps, other employment opportunities, etc. This information will be computerized and formatted to constitute a data bank for TVET trainers to access and use for self-assessment, action plan, reporting and learning.

The current report compiled information on TVET skills needs, supply and demand in the labour market for agro business and creative industry. The study targeted young people who work in micro and small business enterprises in the two sectors. This is essentially covering informal and semi informal business enterprises.

Labour market analysis should compile information from employers, or the business activities in which TVET graduates work, with regard to their skills need and demand gaps. To complete the circle of the analysis, the training institutions for the two trades/sectors –i.e. Agro industry and the Creative industry were also assessed in terms of their delivery capacities.  The trainers will be the primary users of the findings of the labour market analysis as they review the relevance of their TVET programs, curriculum, human resource capacities and the training process.

Both qualitative and quantitative techniques of data analysis have been used in the analysis of the labour market. The analysis intends to find out the skills that are in need by employers in the informal sector but are not available in the labour market; and skills which are missing (skills gaps) for self-employed people. There is no single method of skills anticipation and matching; several approaches and methods have been developed to identify skills needs, some of which are descriptive current and past situations, while others are forward looking[1].  

 

[1] SKILL NEEDS ANTICIPATION: SYSTEMS AND APPROACHES. Analysis of stakeholder survey on skill needs assessment and anticipation, ILO 2017.

 

Establishment of a data Bank

The information compiled and processed during the implementation of the assignment includes sources of information, the data on skills need, framework and results of the analyses, and the applicable data collection tools for the assessment. These have been programmed to constitute a template for data bank of TVET trainers, employers and self-employed people. Employers’ skills need and skill gaps will be compiled and mapped in the data bank; and training sources and job posts can also be enlisted in the data. Training institutions will use the data bank to identify their training gaps, training needs and demand and supply of their graduates in the labour market. Therefore, the data bank will be the platform where employers, trainers, employees/graduates and prospective trainees seek information on TVET training and the labour market. The expected regular feedback from the data bank will gradually improve the quality of TVET training and effectively seek to match supply and demand for TVET skills in the market.

 

 

Agro Industry

Agro Industry

Agro Industry is a very big sector involving production, storage, transport, processing and manufacturing, packaging and marketing. These are agro-business activities carried out in large, medium and small scale in the formal and informal sector. This report is focusing on enhancement of skills of young people in the informal and semi-informal sector. Simply defined, informal sector includes those who operate without a license, and usually on a small scale businesses which include household enterprises. Semi-in formal businesses include licensed dealers who operate alongside unlicensed dealers and exhibit most of the features of the informal businesses. The labour market assessment focused on value addition in agro-business beyond crop production; implying that skills needed in crop and livestock production are excluded, and instead focus on processing, packaging, storage and marketing – the down chain stages of agribusiness as indicated in the figure below, which shows the four stages of crop production value chain.

 

 

Source: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/The-four-stages-of-the-food-and-agribusiness-value-chain_fig2_322892253

The up chain involves production of many crops and livestock, and so with the corresponding production of inputs. As such, there exist a variety of specific skills needed for stage one and two. Many young men do not have direct access to land because the relatively old or parents own the land. This is in addition to observation that youth are more interested to work in the down chain stages of the agro business than crop production as such.

The down chain stages of the agro industry have more employment and self-employment opportunities for young people; and also, where skills are most needed to pull up the agro industry through value addition in agricultural produce. This is in line with the industrialization drive of the current government and the priority sector thereof.

It is further observed that there are many agribusiness value chains in Tanzania. The current study had limitations in terms of its objectives, timing and other resources to cover all the chains. As such, a careful choice was made by including the value chains where there are potential opportunities for employment and self-employment for youth.

Therefore, assessment of skills need in the agro industry focused on agricultural products and processing, to assess the set of instructional programs that prepare individuals to process food and non-food products and to inspect those products from preparation to marketing.

The Creative Industry

The Creative Industry

Creative industries is a range of economic activities which are concerned with generation or exploitation of knowledge and information. They also include the cultural industries[1]. The creative industry is sometimes referred to as the creative economy[2].  The industry comprises advertising, architecture, art, crafts, design, fashion, film, music, performing arts, publishing, R&D, software, toys and games, TV and radio, and video games. Invariably, there have been other several definitions which include more economic activities.

Creative industry in Tanzania is growing fast. It includes economic activities such as Pattern Design and Logo Design; Singing which includes Taarab music groups, Dance music bands, Choir; Filming and Video shooting; Fashion making which includes Dress fashion making, Hair dressing, etc.; Visual Art Production which includes Painting, Sculpture and Decoration items, toys, etc.; Traditional dancing; Art performing which includes Opera and Performing on shift stages; and Computer games composing.

There are many dealers in the creative industry, which is one of the main self-employment and employing sectors of young people in Tanzania. As in the case of the agro business sector, there are small and big dealers in the sector; and informal and semi-formal dealers in the sector. The assessment will focus on the informal and semi-formal dealers where skills enhancement is most needed.             

 

Sources of information and selection of the respondents

Primary sources of information and selection of the respondents

Primary sources of information included selected players in the informal labour market and the self-employment sub sector.  For every identified economic activity (defined by value addition) two enterprises and two employees were randomly visited and interviewed. Alongside, two self-employed youth were interviewed by alternating by gender where appropriate. The employers’ interviews sought to compile information on TVET skills need in every identified subsector, skills gaps for their employees, the level of unmet manpower demand (number of employees) by category of TVET skills, their future expansion plans, and their assessment of the quality of the newly employed TVET graduates.

 

Secondary sources of information

This report has benefited from several sources of information including review and tracer studies carried out by TVET institutions in Tanzania Mainland and Zanzibar and in other countries such as UK, Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, etc. These include online sources and those which were obtained from the respective contacted institutions. The reports were complemented by interviews held with the different umbrella institutions of TVET.

 

Other Sources:-

  1. Employers (Public/Private)
  2. employers
  3. Guild Associations
  4. Trainers
  5. Policy Markert (The ministry of Education, Ministry of Labour and The respective Ministry of sectors )
  6. VETA/VTA
  7. NACTE
  8. Sector Organisations
  9. Demostrated literacture
  10. Tracer Studies
  11. Labour Market Studies
  12. Others

 

Data analysis

Data analysis

The data from the interviews were captured in SPSS for analysis. In conjunction with the SPSS, the data were exported to EXCEL for graphical analysis. The basic analytical tables include labour supply and demand tables with mismatches and gaps; the extent to which TVET graduates meet the expectations of the labour market, trends in demand and supply in the labour market and basic information on TVET institutions.    

Summary of the framework of TVET labour market studies and expected outcomes

The objective of labour market analysis is to find out skills needs in the context of supply and demand, skills gap, employability and hence the relevance of TVET in relation to the industry needs. The findings are expected to trigger review of the TVET training programs leading to improved curriculum, improved relevance   of TVET in the labour market, increased demand for TVET graduates, increased employability of TVET graduates, improved productivity at work place and increased positive perception about TVET (Figure 5). 

 

Data Collection Tools

Data Collection Tools

Data Collection Tools

 Collection and compilation of the data and information needed to carry out the analysis of labour market for this report involved semi-structured data collection tools designed to record interview responses from employers, employees and self-employed, trainers and key in-depth interviews with the other various stakeholders of TVET - policy, regulatory, support organizations and the respective trade guilds.  

 

Questionnaire No 1-Policy and Regulatory Interview Guide

A: Identification: 

A1:         Questionnaire No …………………………………………………………………………………………….

A2:         Date of Interview ……………………………………………………………………………………..

A3:         Name of Organization ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

A4:         Respondent’s title/post/position…………………………………………….. ………………………………………………….

A5:         Contacts: Respondent’s mobile telephone number……………………………………………………………………….

A5:         Type of the respective Sector……………………………..………………………………………………………………………

B: Organizational, Policy and Regulatory Issues

B1:         How is the creative/agro processing industry organized in Tanzania? What are the subsectors?

B2:         Which are the key government institutions responsible for the sector? And what is the role of each of those institutions?

B3:         What are the different associations (registered and unregistered) which have been established by the various players in the agro processing/creative industry? (Kindly mention them including their location and leadership (tel. no)

B4:         What are the major policies for managing and regulating the agro processing/creative industry in the country?

 

C:  Existing TVET Trainers and Reports

C1:         Do you have a list of TVET trainers (government and private)?

 

C2:         Do have reports on the TVET sector (Agro business and creative industry)? Which are they? How can we access them?

 

 D:  Assessment of Graduates of TVET in Job Tasks-performance

D1:         Please indicate the tasks which graduate employees of TVET do well and those which they cannot.

 

Please indicate the current technologies available in the market but there is no training institutions for the same  

 

 

S/N

Type of Technology

Skills required

Availability of Skills in Tanzania

1. Available

2. Not available

a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

c)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

d)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What are the capacity gaps and infrastructural needs of the training institutions in agro business and creative industry?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

 

What can be done to improve the situation in the immediate future?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

Which three institutions do you recommend to work with the BEAR II project (three for agro processing and three for the creative industry?)

-----------------------------------------------------------…………………………………………………

 

Any other comments:

 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

 

 

Questionnaire No 2 - Associations

A: Identification: 

A1:         Questionnaire No …………………………………………………………………………………………….

A2:         Date of Interview ……………………………………………………………………………………..

A3:         Name of Association ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

A4:         Respondent’s title/post/position…………………………………………….. ………………………………………………….

A5:         Contacts: Respondent’s mobile telephone number……………………………………………………………………….

A5:         Type of the respective Sector……………………………..………………………………………………………………………

B: Organizational, Policy and Regulatory Issues

B1:         How is the creative/agro processing industry organized in Tanzania? What are the subsectors?

B2:         Which are the key government institutions responsible for the sector? And what is the role of each of those institutions?

B3:         What are the different associations (registered and unregistered) which have been established by the various players in the agro processing/creative industry? (Kindly mention them including their location and leadership (tel. no.)  

B4:         What are the major policies for managing and regulating the agro processing/creative industry in the country?

 C:  Existing TVET Trainers and Reports

C1:         Do you have a list of TVET trainers (government and private)?

C2:         Do have reports on the TVET sector (Agro business and creative industry)

D:  Assessment of Graduates of TVET in Job Tasks-performance

D1:         Please indicate the tasks which graduate employees of TVET do well and those which they cannot.

 

 

Please indicate the current technologies or business opportunities available in the market but there is no training institutions for the same  

 

 

S/N

Type of Technology

Skills required

Availability of Skills in Tanzania

1. Available

2. Not available

a)

 

 

 

 

 

b)

 

 

 

 

 

c)

 

 

 

 

 

d)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What are the capacity gaps and infrastructural needs of the training institutions in agro business and creative industry?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

What can be done to improve the situation in the immediate future?

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Which three institutions do you recommend to work with the BEAR II project (three for agro processing and three for the creative industry?)

-----------------------------------------------------------…………………………………………………

 

Any other comments:

 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Questionnaire No. 3: Employers

As one of the strategies towards improvement of Technical and Vocational Education, the Ministry of Education in collaboration with UNESCO (TZ) intend to assist institutions offering TVET for the Creative Industry in Tanzania to develop curriculum that will meet the requirement of the National Technical Awards (NTA) and ensure that employers’ needs in the labour market are met. As one of the key employers in the sector, you are kindly requested to respond to this questionnaire, as frankly as possible, so that the results of the survey are used to improve the training and performance of the labour market.

 

A: EMPLOYER’S IDENTIFICATION: 

A1          Name of the employer/Business: ……………………………………………………………………….……………………..

 

A2          Year of establishment: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

A3          Region: …………………………………………………………………………………………………...........................

       

A4          Telephone number: ………………………………………………...................................................................

 

A5          E-mail: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………..

 

A6          Website: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….......

A7          Sector …………..Please tick [ Ö  ] as appropriate: 1 [      ] Creative industry [     ] Agro business

A8:         Subsector (please pick from the coding list) [     ]

A9          Status of the businessPlease Tick [ Ö  ] 

1 [      ] Family business                                  2 [      ] Joint Venture

3 [      ] Individual business                            4 [      ] Public enterprise

5 [      ] Registered Company                      5 [      ] NGO business

6 [      ] Other: Please Specify………………………………………………………………………..

 

A10        Main activities of the business: Please pick number (s) from the coding list]              

1 [      ] First main activity      2 [      ] Second main activity  

3 [      ] Third main activity      4[      ] Fourth main activity

               5 [      ] Other: Please specify…………………………………………………………………………

 

B: MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS

B1:         Total employees (Current numbers):  Please tick [ Ö  ]        

1 [     ] 1 -3                          2 [     ] 4 to 5                      3 [     ] 6 to 10

4 [     ] 11 to 15                  5 [     ] 15 to 100 6 [     ] More than 100

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B2:         Please indicate the number of vocational and technical staff working in your business in the table below:

S/N

TYPE OF STAFF EMPLOYED

CURRENTLY EMPLOYED

College-trained staff

Not trained

CURRENT

VACANCIES

MALE

FEMALE

TOTAL

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B3:         What is the projected staff requirement in your business in the near future?

              

 

S/N

 

TYPE OF STAFF REQUIRED

REQUIREMENT IN NUMBERS

 

IMMEDIATE FUTURE

 

IN THE NEXT 5 YEARS

 

 

1

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

TOTAL

 

 

 

 

B4:         What are the important attributes of the job-applicants of your business do you consider most? Please indicate in the table below using the following codes 1 = very important 2 = fairly important 3 = Not important

 

 

 

 

 

S/N

 

ASPECTS

IMPORTANCE IN RECRUITMENT

a)

Field of study

 

b)

Main focus of subject area/ specialization

 

c)

Grades of examinations

 

d)

Ability to express oneself in writing

 

e)

Practical experience acquired during course of study

 

f)

Reputation of candidate’s training institution/Examining body

 

g)

Recommendations/references

 

h)

Results of recruitment /interview tests

 

i)

Computer proficiency

 

j)

Fluency in English language

 

k)

Fluency in Kiswahili language

 

l)

Other: Please specify

1)

 

2)

 

3)

 

 

C:           GENERAL TASKS PERFORMED BY EMPLOYEES: ASSESSMENT OF COMPETENCIES

 

C1:         Please indicate the tasks which your current employees can do well and those which they cannot.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C2:         Please indicate the current technology used by your business and the availability of the corresponding skills in the labour market

 

 

S/N

Current Technology used in operations

 

Skills required to generate

Availability of Skills in Tanzania

1. Available

2. Not available

Number of Vacancies available in your business

a)

 

 

 

 

 

 

b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

c)

 

 

 

 

 

 

d)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C3:         Please give suggestions and comments on what work skills should be included in the training curriculum of vocational and technical institutions in Tanzania

 

S/N

TYPE OF SKILLS/WORKERS

COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS ON SKILLS/TRAINING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C4:         How do you assess the following knowledge and abilities of young employees in your business? Please circle one item in each row in the table below

 

S/N

 

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

ASSESSMENT (Please circle as appropriate)

VERY GOOD

GOOD

POOR

a)

Theoretical knowledge

1

2

3

b)

Practical skills

1

2

3

c)

Motivation to learn new technology

1

2

3

d)

Ability of learning new products

1

2

3

e)

Motivation to learn how to do things

1

2

3

f)

Ability of learning how to do things

1

2

3

g)

Willingness to do manual work

1

2

3

h)

Interest in work

1

2

3

i)

Motivation to do given tasks

1

2

3

j)

Innovativeness/Adoptability

1

2

3

k)

Ability to work for long hours

1

2

3

l)

Willingness to work for long hours

1

2

3

m)

Managerial and sales skills

1

2

3

n)

Customer care

1

2

3

o)

Ability to apply skills in local environment

1

2

3

p)

Other: Please specify

1)

 

1

 

2

 

3

2)

1

2

3

3)

1

2

3

 

C5:         How do you assess the following behavioural aspects of employees of your business? Please circle one item in each row in the following table

 

 

S/N

 

BEHAVIOURAL ASPECTS

ASSESSMENT (Please circle as appropriate)

VERY GOOD

 GOOD

POOR

a)

Initiative

1

2

3

b)

Entrepreneurial ability

1

2

3

c)

Leadership qualities

1

2

3

d)

Quest for further education

1

2

3

e)

Team-working ability

1

2

3

f)

Safety consideration

1

2

3

g)

Environmental awareness

1

2

3

h)

Integrity

1

2

3

i)

Professional attitudes towards work and people

1

2

3

j)

Other: Please specify

1)

 

1

 

2

 

3

2)

1

2

3

3)

1

2

3

 

D:           ASSESSMENT OF TRAINING NEEDS FOR THE BUSINESS

 

5.1         What are your present pressing training needs for your business and the industry in general? Please fill in as appropriate

  1. …………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. …………………………………………………………………………………………
  3. …………………………………………………………………………………………
  4. …………………………………………………………………………………………

 

Questionnaire No. 4: Employees and Self-employed

As one of the strategies towards improvement of Technical and Vocational Education, the Ministry of Education in collaboration with UNESCO (TZ) intend to assist institutions offering TVET for the Creative Industry in Tanzania to develop curriculum that will meet the requirement of the National Technical Awards (NTA) and ensure that employers’ needs in the labour market are met. As one of the employees/self-employed in the sector, you are kindly requested to respond to this questionnaire, as frankly as possible, so that the results of the survey are used to improve the training and performance of the labour market.

A: EMPLOYEE’S IDENTIFICATION: 

A1          Name of the Business: ……………………………………………………………………….……………………..

 

A2          Year of establishment: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

A3          Region: …………………………………………………………………………………………………...........................

       

A4          Telephone number: ………………………………………………...................................................................

 

A5          E-mail: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………..

 

A6          Website: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….......

A7          Sector …………..Please tick [ Ö  ] as appropriate: 1 [      ] Creative industry [     ] Agro business

A8:         Subsector (please pick from the coding list) [     ]

A9          Status of the businessPlease Tick [ Ö  ] 

1 [      ] Family business                                  2 [      ] Joint Venture

3 [      ] Individual business                            4 [      ] Public enterprise

5 [      ] Registered Company                      5 [      ] NGO business

6 [      ] Other: Please Specify………………………………………………………………………..

 

A10        Main activities of the business: Please pick number (s) from the coding list]              

1 [      ] First main activity      2 [      ] Second main activity  

3 [      ] Third main activity      4[      ] Fourth main activity

               5 [      ] Other: Please specify…………………………………………………………………………

 

A11        Did you attend any college for TVET? 1 = Yes, 2 = NO [      ]

 

A12        If yes, what skills did you learn ………………………………………………………………………………………

 

A13        If yes, have the TVET skills you learned been useful in your current job tasks? 1 = Yes, very useful; 2 = Yes, somehow useful; 3 = Littly useful; 3 = Not useful. [      ]

 

A14        If No in no. 11, where did you learn how to do the current tasks/business? 1 = In-service training; 2 = through apprenticeship; 3 = have not attended [      ]

 B:       GENERAL TASKS PERFORMED BY EMPLOYEES: ASSESSMENT OF COMPETENCIES

 

B1:         Please indicate the tasks which you can do well and those which you cannot do well in your current job post

 

 

 

 

B2:         Please indicate the current technology used by businesses in your job post and your ability to cope

 

 

S/N

Current Technology used in operations

 

Skills required to work

Respondent’s ability to cope

1.      Coped

2.      Trying to cope

3.      Did not cope

a)

 

 

 

 

 

b)

 

 

 

 

 

c)

 

 

 

 

 

d)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B3:         Please give suggestions and comments on what work skills should be included in the training curriculum of vocational and technical institutions in Tanzania (skills relating to your job tasks)

 

S/N

TYPE OF SKILLS/WORKERS

COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS ON SKILLS/TRAINING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B4:         How do you assess the following knowledge and abilities of young employees in business in your sector? Please circle one item in each row in the table below

 

S/N

 

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

ASSESSMENT (Please circle as appropriate)

VERY GOOD

GOOD

POOR

a)

Theoretical knowledge

1

2

3

b)

Practical skills

1

2

3

c)

Motivation to learn new technology

1

2

3

d)

Ability of learning new products

1

2

3

e)

Motivation to learn how to do things

1

2

3

f)

Ability of learning how to do things

1

2

3

g)

Willingness to do manual work

1

2

3

h)

Interest in work

1

2

3

i)

Motivation to do given tasks

1

2

3

j)

Innovativeness/Adoptability

1

2

3

k)

Ability to work for long hours

1

2

3

l)

Willingness to work for long hours

1

2

3

m)

Managerial and sales skills

1

2

3

n)

Customer care

1

2

3

o)

Ability to apply skills in local environment

1

2

3

p)

Other: Please specify

1)

 

1

 

2

 

3

2)

1

2

3

3)

1

2

3

 

B5:         How do you assess the following behavioural aspects of employees in business in your industry? Please circle one item in each row in the following table

 

 

S/N

 

BEHAVIOURAL ASPECTS

ASSESSMENT (Please circle as appropriate)

VERY GOOD

 GOOD

POOR

a)

Initiative

1

2

3

b)

Entrepreneurial ability

1

2

3

c)

Leadership qualities

1

2

3

d)

Quest for further education

1

2

3

e)

Team-working ability

1

2

3

f)

Safety consideration

1

2

3

g)

Environmental awareness

1

2

3

h)

Integrity

1

2

3

i)

Professional attitudes towards work and people

1

2

3

j)

Other: Please specify

1)

 

1

 

2

 

3

2)

1

2

3

3)

1

2

3

 

 

 

Questionnaire No. 5: TRAINERS

 

 

As one of the strategies towards improvement of Technical and Vocational Education, the Ministry of Education in collaboration with UNESCO (TZ) intend to assist institutions offering TVET for the Creative Industry in Tanzania to develop curriculum that will meet the requirement of the National Technical Awards (NTA) and ensure that employers’ needs in the labour market are met. As one of the Trainers in the sector, you are kindly requested to respond to this questionnaire, as frankly as possible, so that the results of the survey are used to improve the training and performance of the labour market.

 

 

 

A: TRAINER’S IDENTIFICATION: 

A1          Name of the Trainer: ……………………………………………………………………….……………………..

 

A2          Year of establishment: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

A3          Region: …………………………………………………………………………………………………...........................

       

A4          Telephone number: ………………………………………………...................................................................

 

A5          E-mail: …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….………..

 

A6          Website: ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….......

A7          Sector of training ………..Please tick [ Ö  ] as appropriate: 1 [      ] Creative industry [     ] Agro business

 

A9          Type of TEVT training institution: Please Tick [ Ö  ] 

1 [      ] Government VET College                               2 [      ] Private VET

3 [      ] Government Technical training college     4 [      ] Private Technical training college

5 [      ] NGO College                                                     5 [      ] Trained outside the country

6 [      ] Other: Please Specify………………………………………………………………………..

 

B: AREAS OF TRAINING    AND ENROLMENT

B1          Please give the trades (skills) of training of your institution and enrolments

 

S/N

TRADE

Duration of Training in months

Total Graduates in 2018

Enrolment for Entry in 2019

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ALL TRADES

 

 

 

C: STAFFING

Please give your staff in counts by the trades of training

 

S/N

TRADE

Number of fully trained and technically qualified staff

Number of trained but not technically qualified staff

Other

Total number of staff

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ALL TRADES

 

 

 

 

 

D:           ASSESSMENT OF COMPETENCIES OF GRADUATES

 

D1:         Please indicate the tasks which your current graduates can do well and those which they cannot, once employed or self-employed.

 

TASKS WHICH THEY DO WELL

TASKS WHICH THEY DO NOT DO WELL

TASKS WHICH THEY DO NOT KNOW HOW TO DO

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D2:         Please indicate the current skills need and/or technology used in the labour market but not trained in the country

 

 

S/N

Sector/Business

Skills Needed

 

Potential training institutions which can be capacitated to provide the training

a)

 

 

 

 

 

b)

 

 

 

 

 

c)

 

 

 

 

 

d)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D3:         How do you assess the following knowledge and abilities of your graduates of recent years? Please circle one item in each row in the table below

 

S/N

 

GENERAL KNOWLEDGE

ASSESSMENT (Please circle as appropriate)

VERY GOOD

GOOD

POOR

a)

Theoretical knowledge

1

2

3

b)

Practical skills

1

2

3

c)

Motivation to learn new technology

1

2

3

d)

Ability of learning new products

1

2

3

e)

Motivation to learn how to do things

1

2

3

f)

Ability of learning how to do things

1

2

3

g)

Willingness to do manual work

1

2

3

h)

Interest in work

1

2

3

i)

Motivation to do given tasks

1

2

3

j)

Innovativeness/Adoptability

1

2

3

k)

Ability to work for long hours

1

2

3

l)

Willingness to work for long hours

1

2

3

m)

Managerial and sales skills

1

2

3

n)

Customer care

1

2

3

o)

Ability to apply skills in local environment

1

2

3

p)

Other: Please specify

1)

 

1

 

2

 

3

2)

1

2

3

3)

1

2

3

 

 

D4:         Please give suggestions and comments on what work skills should be included in the training curriculum of vocational and technical institutions in Tanzania

 

S/N

TYPE OF SKILLS/WORKERS

COMMENTS/SUGGESTIONS ON SKILLS/TRAINING

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D5:         How do you assess the following behavioural aspects of your graduates of recent years? Please circle one item in each row in the following table

 

 

S/N

 

BEHAVIOURAL ASPECTS

ASSESSMENT (Please circle as appropriate)

VERY GOOD

 GOOD

POOR

a)

Initiative

1

2

3

b)

Entrepreneurial ability

1

2

3

c)

Leadership qualities

1

2

3

d)

Quest for further education

1

2

3

e)

Team-working ability

1

2

3

f)

Safety consideration

1

2

3

g)

Environmental awareness

1

2

3

h)

Integrity

1

2

3

i)

Professional attitudes towards work and people

1

2

3

j)

Other: Please specify

1)

 

1

 

2

 

3

2)

1

2

3

3)

1

2

3

 

E             PRACTICAL TRAINING AND OUTREACH PROGRAMS

 

E1           Which industry/employers who provide practical training to your students in the form of attachment or apprenticeship?

 

S/N

TRADE

Name of provider of practical training and address

Number of students who were accepted in 2018

Short term attachment

Apprenticeship

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ALL TRADES

 

 

 

E2:         Do you have outreach training programs? 1 = Yes; 2 = No [        ]

Which ones, please explain

 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

 

F:            LABOUR MARKET INTELLIGENCE AND FEEDBACK FOR IMPROVEMENT

 

F1: Do you carry out any tracer study or labour market studies for your graduates? 1 = Yes; 2 = No [        ]

If yes, when did you do the last? …………………………………………………….. (Year)

If yes, what training needs and gaps did you observe?

Training needs observed

 ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Training gaps observed

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..

 

  1. ASSESSMENT OF INFRASTRUCTURAL CAPACITY AND COLLABORATIONS

 

G1          Do you have any infrastructural capacity problems? 1 = Yes, 2 = No [         ]

Which ones?

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

G2 Do you have any collaborations with other institutions (internal and external)? 1 =Yes, 2 = No [          ]

Please explain each collaboration:

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

 

…………………………………………………………………………………….

G3          Do you have any other information or comment you would wish to share with us for improving the TVET sector in Tanzania?

 

 

FINDING

Finding

RECOMMENDATION

Recomend